What are the causes and incidences of hospital acquired infections

post your level 1 and level 2 research questions (I ALREADY POSTED THEM ) I NEED TO ANSWER TO PEERS PROMPT 1 AND 2 ). Identify any questions or challenges you faced with the assignment, or mention something new you learned about the research question and inquiry paper process. Pose specific questions you would like your peers to address. In your responses, provide your peers with specific feedback, constructive criticism, suggestions for improvement, and ideas for resources or support. Comment to a minimum of two peers. Remember that your feedback and support are important! COMMENT PROMPT 1 AND 2 PROMPT 1 According to health.gov: These factors raise the risk of HAIs: Catheters (bloodstream, endotracheal, and urinary) Surgery Injections Health care settings that aren’t properly cleaned and disinfected Communicable diseases passing between patients and healthcare workers Overuse or improper use of antibiotics Common HAIs patients get in hospitals include: Central-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) Clostridium difficile infections Pneumonia Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections Surgical site infections Urinary tract infections Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are some of the most common HAIs. I would also suggest going to the CDC website they have a lot of information on HAI and preventions of each type. I know there is a lot of information about catheter acquired infections in hospitals from improper care. References: https://health.gov/hcq/prevent-hai.asp https://www.cdc.gov/hai/ PROMPT 2 What are the causes and incidences of hospital acquired infections? What are major risks for hospital-acquired infections and what are the prevention strategies? Hospital-acquired infections are acquired within the health facilities as the patients continue receiving their treatments for surgical and medical conditions. The major causes of these infections include bacterial fungal and viral pathogens. Every patients admitted to the health facility has 5 percent chances of contracting hospital-acquired infections. Once a patient contracts the infection, the hospital stay is increased by 17.6 days (Khan, Baig & Mehboob, 2017). The estimated number of deaths resulting from the HAIs is 99,000 patients and this number is high compared to the number of patients dying of prostate cancer and breast cancer combined (Meddings, 2018). This is an indication that there is need for action to be taken. Of all the inpatient costs incurred in the health facilities, 9.4percent of these costs are related to HAIs. The health facilities incur $35 billion every year as result of the hospital-acquired infections. Patients with Medicaid and Medicare plans account for 69percent of the HAIs. For every patient admission in the health facility, the HAIs account for $1,100 (Khan, Baig & Mehboob, 2017). This is a clear indication these infections have been increasing every year with their costs increasing for healthcare facilities. They are contracted in a number of healthcare centers that include rehabilitation facilities, nursing homes, ambulatory clinics, surgical centers and hospitals (Meddings, 2018). The prevention measures for these infections include proper hand washing, creating a policy for infection control, identifying the contagions as soon as possible, providing education on infection control, using gloves, keeping surfaces clean and disinfected and ensuring that the patients’ beddings are changed consistently (Khan, Baig & Mehboob, 2017). An important lesson learnt through this inquiry is that despite the efforts and advancements made in the healthcare sector in terms of technology and evidence-based practice, there continues to be a high number of deaths resulting from these infections. Additionally, the healthcare costs associated with these infections are on the rise. The questions I wish to pose to peers are: What are the interventions that should be put in place to reduce the high prevalence rated for HAIs? What are the impacts of these infections to the nursing profession? Who are at risk of developing these infections? References Khan, H. A., Baig, F. K., & Mehboob, R. (2017). Nosocomial infections: Epidemiology, prevention, control and surveillance. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 7(5), 478-482. Meddings, J. (2018). Preventing Hospital-Acquired Infections. The Saint-Chopra Guide to Inpatient Medicine, 21-30. doi:10.1093/med/9780190862800.003.0004 What is the difference between high-, middle-, and low-range theories? Explain your understanding of a middle-range nursing theory. Identify a research study in which a middle-range theory was applied. Discuss the study results and implications for practice. PLEASE ANSWER TO PROMPTS 3 AND 4 PROMPT 3 Middle range theories were initially used in sociology and were brought into the field of nursing in 1974. High middle range theories tend to be the closest to grand theories. They are extremely broad and can be applied to many different aspects of the nursing profession. Middle range theories are those that apply to many situations: they apply to more specific situations than grand theories and high range theories but are still less specific than the low middle range. The low middle range theories are significantly less abstract and are similar to situation-specific theories. They tend to be concrete and are more commonly applied to specific patients/situations. However, the theories described by these three categories are considered to be arbitrary – one person can believe a certain theory is high middle range while another thinks it is a grand theory and vice versa. Middle range theories are broad enough that they can be applied to a variety of patient populations and/or communities but can still address specific phenomena in nursing. In order to be applied to nursing, middle-range theories must contain variables and factors that are able to be tested. The study I chose to look at was regarding an interactive theory of breastfeeding. The purpose of this theory was to describe and explain the breastfeeding process. This theory is important for nursing practice because it enhances the many different benefits of breastfeeding. The results of the study “confirm the need to establish a middle-range theory, because it provides a clinical contribution, but also encompasses the conceptual complexity of breastfeeding” (Primo & Brandão, 2017). This theory can be used all throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period to help nurses, healthcare professionals, and mothers gain knowledge, critical thinking, and the skills necessary to promote and establish safe and effective breastfeeding. Reference Primo, C., & Brandão, M. A. G. (2017). Interactive theory of breastfeeding: Creation and application of a middle-range theory. Revista Brasileira De Enfermagem, 70(6), 1191-1198. doi:http://dx.doi.org.westcoastuniversity.idm.oclc.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2016-0523 PROMPT 4 Regarding the difference of grand theory (high), middle range theory, and practice theory (low), they are as follows - Grand theory is the conceptual background where the key concepts and ideas of the discipline can be identified. Middle range theory is more detailed and only evaluates a certain situation with a limited number of variables, and practice theory studies one actual situation found in nursing. It identifies obvious goals and specifies how these goals will be completed. To further detail a mid-range nursing theory it presents concepts and a lower level of abstraction and guide theory-based research and nursing practice strategies. The role of the mid-range theories includes describing, explaining or predict phenomenon. An example of a middle range theory was Madeleine Leininger’s Transcultural Nursing Theory. Through Leininger’s observations while working as a nurse she identified a lack of cultural and care knowledge as the missing component to a nurse’s understanding of the variations required in patient care to support compliance, healing, and wellness which led her to develop the theory of Transcultural Nursing, also known as Culture Care Theory. This theory involves knowing and understanding different cultures with respect to nursing and health-illness caring practices, beliefs and values with the goal to provide meaningful and useful nursing care services to people according to their cultural values and health-illness context. We should all be sensitive to what Leininger has to share in her theory with the daily care of our patients. McEwen, M. (2019). Theoretical Basis for Nursing. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781496351210/ Wikipedia contributors. (n.d.) Nursing theory. In Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nursing_theory

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